Neanderthal and Homo SapiensThe path of evolution between the Neanderthal and the Homo Sapiens is far shorter that you would think. According to most scientists dedicated to the study of human evolution, neanderthals are far from being the dumb cavemen they are portrayed in popular culture. It is more our similarities than our differences, and a large number of experts have stated that the Neanderthal might have been just as smart as the current human being.
The Neanderthal's cranial capacity evidences a large brain size, maybe even larger than men, and stronger, due to their large size. Also it has been determined by scientists that humans and neanderthals were sexually compatible and likely mated, since both have coexisted at some point. One might argue that it was that particular mixture that lead to the predominance of man over the neanderthal.
Since the evolution of man there have been some distinct differences between us and chimp, but some of those exact same differences also are present with the Neanderthal. One in particular is the lack of a penis spine. Chimps have them, men don't and the neanderthal didn't. Penis spines are protuberances in the gland on the member and its main function is to stimulate the male for quicker relations and faster climax. Since the chimp is a non-monogamous specie, it is important for them to mate a large number of times with different partners. In a way the chimp penis has this spines as a built in stimulant to increase the sexual pleasure.
Now while chimps still have these spines, Neanderthals and humans dropped the trait. Scientists argue that this lead for more monogamous, longer sexual relations. This eventually contributes to a construction of more complex social structures. In a way this pairs us up closely to the Neanderthal. What is a more likely theory is that Neanderthals didn't vanished from the Earth, the constant breeding with humans lead to a more hybrid outcome that eventually was dominated by what is now the face of mankind.
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